Simulating the blood-muscle-valve mechanics of the heart by an adaptive and parallel version of the immersed boundary method
Animations of the heart simulation are provided from several vantage points. Note that each animation is based upon the same data set (i.e., the same simulation), and that in each animation, only a subset of the model muscle fibers are shown. In most cases, animations are available either as an animated GIF or as a QuickTime movie. Note that the animated GIFs provide higher image quality, but at the expense of somewhat larger file sizes and impaired control over the frame rate.
Click on any image to view the full-sized version of that image.
A brief overview of the three-dimensional McQueen/Peskin fiber model of the heart and great vessels used in this work is provided in Appendix A of my PhD thesis. See also this web page, which is excerpted from Appendix A of my thesis.
The fiber structure of the model heart, as viewed from the front of the heart. From this view, the right ventricle appears on the left side of the animation, the aorta appears near the center of the animation, the pulmonic artery appears to the left of the aorta, and the four pulmonary arteries appear to the right of the aorta. Note that the superior and inferior vena cavae, as well as the right ventricle, are obscured in the present view. (animated GIF 2.9MB, MOV 2.2MB)
The flow of blood within the heart is indicated by passive fluid markers. The present position of the fluid markers is shown, and attached to each marker is a colored tail that indicates the recent trajectory of the marker. Markers initially located within the left ventricle appear in bright red, whereas markers initially located within the left atrium appear in dark red. Similarly, markers initially located within the right ventricle appear in bright blue, whereas markers initially located within the right atrium appear in dark blue. (animated GIF 2.1MB, MOV 1.8MB)
As before, the flow of blood within the heart is indicated by passive fluid markers, but in this animation, the configuration of the valve leaflets are also shown. In the present view, the aortic valve appears near the center of each frame, the pulmonic valve appears above and to the left of the aortic valve, the tricuspid valve appears below and to the left of the aortic valve, and the mitral valve appears to the right of the aortic valve. (animated GIF 2.5MB, MOV 2.0MB)
Volume rendering of the pressure in the model heart (shown during atrial systole in the figure) and the corresponding locally refined Cartesian grid. Notice that the use of adaptive refinement allows us to employ in an efficient manner a computational domain that is physically larger than that used in earlier uniform grid computations, thereby deceasing the interaction between periodic copies of the model heart. Borders of the fine level 1 grid patches appear as thick black lines, whereas the borders of the computational domain are indicated by thin black lines. The coarse level 0 grid patches are not shown. To allow the right ventricle to appear clearly in the figure, note that the range of displayed pressure values does not include the full range of computed values. (MOV 4.5MB)
The model heart as viewed from its side, so that the right ventricle appears in the front-center of each frame. Notice that a prominent vortex is shed from the tricuspid valve leaflets and migrates to the interior of the right ventricle. (animated GIF 4.3MB, MOV 3.0MB)
The model heart as viewed from its front, but here only viewing a slice through the center of the heart. Notice that a prominent vortex is shed from the mitral valve leaflets and migrates to the interior of the left ventricle. Note that only those fluid markers that are initially within the left atrium or ventricle are shown. Also notice the thickness of the left-ventricular wall. In contrast, the right-ventricular wall is quite thin. (animated GIF 2.5MB, MOV 1.9MB)
The ventricles and valves of the model heart, as viewed from above and to the front of the heart. Only those fluid markers that are initially within one of the ventricles are shown. Notice that the mitral valve clearly prevents back-flow throughout the simulation. (animated GIF 4.6MB, MOV 3.2MB)
The valves of the model heart, as viewed from above and to the front of the heart. Only those fluid markers that are initially within one of the ventricles are shown. Notice that the mitral valve clearly prevents back-flow throughout the simulation. (animated GIF 9.4MB, MOV 7.8MB)
Revised 15.Nov.2005 by email@example.com.